Vegetation

The dominant vegetation type of the area is southern subtropical hill forest. The dominant trees are Bhesa indica, Calophyllum austro-indicum, Syzygium gardneri Chionanthus rami flours, Litsea wightina, etc. Most of the area under these vegetation type is planted with Cardamom and Coffee. The Shola forests and grasslands were found to regenerate even in regions where massive afforestation activities had been carried out. Patches of Pteridium aquilinum, Gaultheria fragrantissima, etc. found in grasslands are active centers of initial colonization mostly by temperate species such as Rhododendron arboreum, Vaccinium leschnaultii, Eurya nitida, Microtropis ramiflora, Pittosporum tetraspermum, Symplocos cochinchinensis, Robus sp., etc. provided moisture conditions are also promoting. Scrubland regions, which are dominated by Strobilanthes kunthianus, Hypericum mysorense, Osbeckia spp., etc. were also found to be active centers of colonization.