Southern Montane Wet Grasslands

This vegetation type covered a major portion of the Sanctuary and is now restricted to certain pockets only. Eulalia-Dichanthium-Sehema is the association found in these grasslands. Major species of grasses are Eulalia phaeothrix, Dichanthium polyptycum, Sehima nervosum, Cymbopogon martini, C. flexuosum, Chrysopogon ceylanicum, Apocopsis manglorensis, Arundinella mesophylla, Arundinella vaginata, A. purpurea, A. pumila, Bothriochloa insculpta, Heteropogon contortus, Ischaemum commutatum, Tripogon bromoides, T. narayanii, Sporobolus indicus, S. piliferus, S. virginicus, Andropogon lividus, Dichanthium foulkesii, D. oliganthum, Digitatia ciliaris, D. setigera, D. wallichiana, Poa annua, Agrostis peninsularis , Eragrostis nigra, E. penisularis, E. pilosa, E. atrovirens, E. unioloides, E. tef, Garnotia arundinacea, G.elata, G.exaristata, Helictotrichon virescens, Isachne kunthiana, I. borneora, I. globosa,Ischaemum indicum, Jansenella griffithiana, Microstegium nudum, Oplismenus comp-ositus, Panicum gardneri, Pseudanthistiria umbellata, Themeda cymbaria, T. tremula ,Zenkeria elegans, Z. sebastinei, etc. In addition to grasses, there are herbaceous dicotyledons like Ranunculus wallichianus, R. reniformis, Viola betonicifolia, Polygala rosmarinifolia, P. sibirioca, Geranium nepaulense, Biophytum intermedium, Crotalaria fysonii, C. clarkei, C. scabrella, C. umbellate, C. nana, C. walkerii, Flemingia grahamiana, Indigofera endecaphylla, Smithia blanda, S. racemosa, Fragariaa nilgherrensis, Kalanchoe grandiflora, Drosera peltata, D. indica, Osbeckia leschenaultiana, O. gracilis, Melothria perpusella, Bupleurum distichophyllum, B. mucronatum, Heracleum candolleanum, H. ceylanicum, Pimpinella candolleana, P. leschenaultiana, Galium asperifolium, Hedyotis bourdillonii, H. buxifolia, H. leschenaultiana, H. purpurascens, Neanotis decipiens, N. tubulosa, Spermococearticularis, Valeriana hookeriana, Adenostemma macropohylla, Ageratum haustonianum, Anaphalis barnesii, A. beddomei, A. bournei, A. meeboldii, A. subdecurrens, A. travancorica, Bidens pilosa, Blumea molle, Cicernbita cyanea, Cirsium wallichii, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Emelia scabra, Erigeron karvinskianus, E. sublyratus, Galinsoga parviflora, Gnaphalium luteo-albuum, Gnaphalium polycaulon, G. pulvinatum, Gynura nitida, Helichrysum buddleoides, Hypochoeris glabra, Kleinia walkerii, Launea acaulis, Moonia heterophylla, Phyloocephalum phylloleanum, P. rangachaarii, P. scabriodum, Sigesbeckia orientalis, Sonchus oleraceus, Spilanthus paniculata, Vernonia indica, V. anamallica, V. conyzoides, V. divergens, V. peninsularis, V. salvifolia, Asyneuma fulgens, Campanula alphonsii, Lobelia leschenalutiana, Lysimachia procumbens, L. leschenaultia, Jasminim bignoniaceum, Tylophora mullesua, Exacum wightianum, Cynoglossum furcatum, Physalis peruvianum, Calceolaria mexicana, Pedicularis zeylanica, Utricularia graminifolia, Rhynchoglossum notonianum, Andrographis neesiana, Justecia simplex, Strobilanthes kunthiana, Thunbergia fragrans, Leucas angularis, L. vestita, Micromeria biflora, Pogostemon rotundatus, Scutellaria violacea, Plantago erosa, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Polygonuim chinense, P. nepaulense, Phyllanthus gardnerianus, P. virgatus, Pauzolzia wightii and P. bennettiana.

Various species of orchids are also seen in these grasslands though lesser in number in comparison with similar untouched montane grasslands. Ground orchids like Satyrium nepaulense, Brchycorythis iantha, B wightii, Disperis neilgherrensis, Habenaria cephalotus, H crassifolia, H. longicornu, Liparis odorata, Peristylis aristata, etc are present in these grasslands.

Sedges like Fibristylis dichotoma, F. narayanii, F. uliginosa, F. haspan, Cyperus iria, C. compressus, C. pubiscuma, C. digitatus, Carex spp. Scleria spp. Pycreus pumilus, P. ferrugineus, P. flavidus, Mariscus dubius, M. javanicus, Rhynchospora corymbosa, Kyllingia brevifolia, Lipocarpha chiensis, etc are also recorded.

Shrubby dicotyledons like Hypericum mysorense, Rubus ellipticus, R. racemosus, R. niveus, R. rugosus, Rhodomyrtus tomentosus, Osbeckia reticulata, Elaeagnus kologa, Desmodium ferrugenium, Smithia blanda, etc are also seen in the grasslands. The bracken fern, Pteridium aquelinum is ubiquitous. The flagship species, Strobilanthes kunthianus is present in all areas as seedlings of 3-4 years growth.