Southern Montane Wet Temperate Forests

Most of the shola vegetation in Kurinjimala Sanctuary is too fragmented and heavily damaged. However, a few compact and very clearly defined patches of original shola vegetation are maintained in some areas at Kadavary
and Kambakkallu. The trees are very close and stunted and clothed with mosses, lichens, orchids and ferns. The flowering plant families Lauraceae and Myrtaceae are dominant. Lauraceae is represented by Alseodaphne semecarpifolia, Actinodaphne campanulata, A. bourdillonii, Apollonias arnottii, Cinnamomum sulphuratum, C. wightii, C. perrottetii, Cryptocarya beddomei, Litsea wightiana, L. beddomei, L. floribunda, L. stocksii, L. bourdillonii, Neolitsea scrobiculata, N. fischerii, N zeylanica and Persea macrantha. Myrtaceae is represented by Syzigium hemisphericum, S. montanum, S. gardnerii, S. cumini, S. arnottianum, S. caryophyllatum, S. densiflorum and Eugenia thwaitesii. Other common trees are Rhododendron arboretum ssp. Nilagiricum, Eleocarpus munronii, E. recurvatus, Ilex wightiana, Microtropis ovata, M. ramiflora, Bhesa indica, Archidendron clypearia, Symplocos cochinchinensis, Gomphandra coriacea, Photenia serratifolia, Ternstroemia japonica, Hydnocarpus alpine, Canthium ficiforme, Glochidion spp. Gordonia obtusa, Mahonia leschenaultia, Lasianthus spp., Michelia nilagirica, Rapanea thwaitesii, Ligustrum robustum, Pittosporum neelgherrense, Turpinia nepalensis, Fagraea ceylanica, Euonymus indicus, Schefflera racemosa, etc. Shrubs like Psychotria spp., Elatostemma lineolatum, Strobilanthes micranthus, S. luridus, S. heyneana, Saprosma foetens, Lasianthus spp., Symplocos spp., etc. The margins of the shola forests are maintained by Rubus spp., Ageratina adenophora, Ageratum haustonianum, etc. Climbers like Cissampelopsis corymbosa, Derris benthamii, Rubia cordifolia, Clematis gouriana, etc are also present in these shola forests. Cyathea nilghirensis, a tree fern is common. Orchids like Oberonia spp., Aerides ringens, Coelogyne nervosa, Bulbophyllum sp. and the balsam, Impatiens parasitica dominate the epiphytic regime. The endemic wild rose Rosa leschenaultiana is present in the fringes of these shola forests.