The sholas have been referred to as living fossils because of their inability to expand, due to the typical climatic and edaphic conditions. Prevalence of frost and extreme hot conditions prevents regeneration of plants in the grassland. However, the temperature in the sholas remains remarkably constant. The ground is usually covered with leaf litter, which helps in maintaining a high level of soil moisture. As a result, there is good regeneration of tree seedlings and herbaceous flora producing very characteristic microclimatic conditions supporting a rich fauna.