The Pambadum Shola National Park represents a large number of plants and animals unique to the shola vegetation. The Park has 321 species of Lepidoptera out of which 89 species belong to the sub order Rhopalocera (butterflies) and the rest belong to Heterocera (moths). Thirteen endemic butterflies which are dominant in the higher elevations are found in the shola.

The species Parantica nilgiriensis (Nymphalidae) which is restricted to some of the hills of south India and listed as threatened species by IUCN, is abundant. The Shola also harbors other rare species like Libythea lepita, Pantoporia ranga, Rohana pariasatis, Zipoetis saintis and Jamides dalecto.